Meniscus is like a wedge but actually a cartilage between the knee bones that secures the bones when we move the knees. There are two such bones in every knee. They are shaped like a crescent. If Meniscus becomes thicker than normal then it becomes more prone for injury and then it is termed as Discoid Meniscus. Most people have this problem but may not get aggravated for the entire life.
There are three types of Discoid Meniscus:
- If the meniscus is thicker than the average thickness then it is called as incomplete.
- If the meniscus covers the entire shin bone then it is called complete.
- Meniscus is attached to the shin bone (Tibia) by a ligament called as meniscofemoral and in some cases the ligament will be completely absent leading to meniscus slipping entirely into the joint thus creating excessive pain. This is called as Hypermobile Wrisberg.
Patients with Discoid Meniscus are known to be more prone for injuries. If such injuries occur it becomes very difficult and resists normal healing. The causes for Discoid Meniscus are still unknown but there are evidences to prove that it occurs from the birth itself. The main symptoms are pain, feeling of swelling and stiffness in the knee joints, popping and locking of the joints during activity, difficulty to stretch the knees fully. Apart from physical examination, X-Ray and / or MRI tests are conducted to understand the reasons of the disease.
After the series of tests are completed and if Discoid Meniscus is diagnosed, depending upon the results and the condition of the patient the surgeon decides whether to go for surgical treatment. The surgical treatment starts with an incision when a small camera is inserted to see the exact condition of the meniscus. The complete and incomplete types are treated easily by cutting and reshaping the meniscus. The hypermobile wrisberg is treated by saucerizing.